iLeakage: Unveiling Apple’s Safari Vulnerability Exploitation Technique


Apple’s Safari browser, renowned for its security features, has been found susceptible to an attack called iLeakage, which exposes highly sensitive information like passwords, Gmail message content, and other secrets. This attack exploits a side channel vulnerability found in the A- and M-series CPUs running modern iOS and macOS devices. In this article, we will delve into the mechanics of iLeakage, how it functions, and the implications it holds for user security.

Understanding the Side Channel Vulnerability:

Academic researchers have coined the attack as iLeakage, which capitalizes on a type of vulnerability known as a side channel. Side channels leak secrets by detecting clues left in electromagnetic emanations, data caches, or other manifestations of a targeted system. In this case, the side channel vulnerability exploited is speculative execution, a performance-enhancement feature prevalent in modern CPUs.

The Role of Speculative Execution:

Speculative execution has been the focal point of various attacks in recent years, leading to an array of exploit variants. It is a feature that chip makers like Intel and AMD have to confront, with incessant efforts to devise effective mitigations. However, attacks like iLeakage continue to highlight the significant challenges involved.

The iLeakage Attack Methodology:

The researchers behind iLeakage have implemented it as a website. When accessed by a vulnerable iOS or macOS device, the website employs JavaScript to secretly load another website specified by the attacker, extracting the site content rendered in a pop-up window. This technique leverages the vulnerabilities in the respective Safari browsers and gains unauthorized access to sensitive information.

Recovering Passwords and Gmail Messages:

Upon visiting the iLeakage site, it takes approximately five minutes to profile the target device. Afterward, it takes an average of 30 seconds to extract a 512-bit secret, which includes items such as a password or a lengthy string like those used for secure authentication. The researchers successfully demonstrated the extraction of YouTube viewing history, the content of a Gmail inbox, and even passwords being autofilled by a credential manager.

Reverse-Engineering and Expertise:

To execute iLeakage, extensive reverse-engineering of Apple hardware and profound expertise in exploiting side channel vulnerabilities are required. This highlights the complexity and sophistication of the attack, making it unlikely to be employed by less experienced threat actors.

Implications for User Security:

The discovery of iLeakage serves as a reminder that even the most secure platforms can have vulnerabilities. Apple’s renowned security reputation is not immune to such attacks. Users of macOS and iOS devices must be cautious when accessing unknown websites and ensure they regularly update their software to benefit from patched vulnerabilities. Additionally, Apple should take immediate action to address this vulnerability and release an effective mitigation.


The iLeakage attack on Apple’s Safari browser reveals the intricacies of exploiting side channel vulnerabilities for unauthorized information extraction. This attack further emphasizes the evolving threat landscape and the perpetual need for rigorous security measures. Both end-users and Apple must remain vigilant to combat such sophisticated attacks, ensuring the protection of sensitive information and enhancing data privacy.

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